Who Lived on High Street in 1881
Investigating the Census
Alan and Barbara Pizzey
This paper has been researched from the Census of 1881, with further information derived from the Censuses of 1871 and 1891. Although house numbers were given as part of the address in 1881, it is unlikely that these correspond to numbers in 2008, partly by reason of the premises demolished and replaced by “infilling” over the last 127 years, and perhaps because in 1881 the postal system of odd and even numbers on opposite sides of the road had not been adopted. Evidence suggests that the same numbering system was not used in 1881 and 1891, whilst in 1871 house numbers were not recorded in the census. In 1881 fifty-five High Street addresses were recorded, but in 1891 there were only forty-six. Nine addresses described in 1891 as “near the Rutland Arms Inn” may account for this difference.
The map above is part of an Ordnance Survey sheet in the scale 1: 2500, printed in 1884, and representing parts of Bottesford and Easthorpe.
Some buildings can be clearly identified e.g. Acacia House and the barn north of it, and next to that the School [built in 1855 and extended in 1878] as well as The Bull and the Coffee House  and The Rutland Arms at the junction of Queen Street and High Street.
The Census of 1881 however clearly records “Albert Street”, which is shown on the map as “Back Street”. The map shows a building on the corner of Back Street [the site of the old Gas Showrooms 60 years ago] which is today an open grassed area.
It is difficult to co-ordinate the house numbers in the census with the buildings shown on the map. On the south side of the High Street a row of ten cottages [now demolished] are shown on the map as ‘Jackson’s Row’, but the census does not use this name, giving High Street numbers to these residences. These houses were known later in Bottesford as ‘Butcher’s Row’ - they can clearly be seen on this photograph from the collection of Mrs Beedham. The residence of the Sutton family, given the High Street number of 46 in the census, can just be seen on the left of the picture, and on the map, at the end of Jackson’s Row by the large figure 5. It was a Grocers’ shop.
The building now known as ‘The Thatch’ can be identified on the map in a small enclosure of its own, but the word ‘Chapel’ refers to a building, now a residence, which is accessed from Albert Street. Walnut Farm on the opposite side of the High Street is shown on the map with its elongated stable block and small separate barn. The pump shown in the garden is still in existence.
The letters ‘P’ and ‘W’ may indicate a pump or a well, and in some houses the small privy is shown at the bottom of the garden e.g. Chestnut Farm [No 319]. The fact that the fields are numbered suggests that the map may have been produced for a particular client e.g. a Trust owning part of the land, and using information from a survey made before 1884. The letters ‘BM’ may stand for benchmark, shown by a broad arrow mark, with heights above sea level shown along the High Street [from 100 feet down to 95 feet].
Co-ordination with the present day
This research has been further complicated by reason of a different definition of the High Street in 1881 from 2008. Market Street today starts at the end of Belvoir Road and runs north to Chapel Street, with Grantham Road branching to the east at The Cross. In 1881 Acacia House and the two shops at The Cross had separate entries in the census, but then in the Easthorpe section of the census further residences in the “ High Street” – numbered 1-6 – are shown. What was then considered as the High Street seems to extend eastwards to the School House on its north side, and also include Daybells Farm on its south side. A licensed victualler shown at 6 Market Street [perhaps The Bull] suggests that Bottesford had a small separate part to the High Street extending eastwards from The Cross. In this research Acacia House and the two shops at The Cross have been included as well as the six houses in the eastern section of the High Street. By 1891 these houses, still occupied by the same families named Lewty, Geeson, Birch and Dent, were considered as part of Grantham Road. On the map (see page 1) the name ‘Market Place’ is used to denote this section of the High Street.
The purpose of this research is to review Victorian society in Bottesford in the 1880’s as represented by those who dwelt in the High Street. Perhaps the High Street is not a typical cross section of society as many members of the working classes lived in small premises built in “yards” back from the High Street – for example Marriotts Yard, Wrights Yard, Richards Yard – and The Green. Normanton, Easthorpe, and Muston on the edge of the village were also centres of agriculture with farmers and labourers a significant element of their population.
Aspects of society evidenced by the census include how families lived together, what lodgers or domestic servants formed part of their households, and how they derived an income to support family life. It is also possible to see where inhabitants originally came from, if they were not born in Bottesford, and by comparison with the censuses of 1871 and 1891 to comment on how long families stayed in one residence. This analysis uses the raw data to catch a glimpse of the story of some families as it unfolds over the years. The term “cottager” is used as an occupation as opposed to “agricultural labourer” or “farmer”. This implies a person who rented or perhaps owned a few acres as a small holding and worked for himself as well as local farmers.
Picture the High Street in 1881 with the “Coffee House” just established and the newly built school extension  at the east end. The Rundle had been an open drain running along High Street, but by 1881 it seems to have been covered. Although the village had a gas works, there was as yet no running water, and the night soil cart came once a week to remove sewage. It was possible to divert water from the River Devon at Easthorpe from time to time to flow along the Rundle and flush out that water course.
The Census does not record tenure of property but it is likely that many more houses were rented rather than owned in 1881 than is the case today. There were 25 Heads of Household in 1881 who were not shown as living in the High Street in 1891. A check in the Gravestone Index [GI] completes the story of some of these residents.
No 1 ~ John Leatherland of Barnston aged 58 years and his wife Jane, aged 49 years who was born in Bottesford. His occupation is given as “Fancy Repository and Cottager”.
In 1891 John & Jane were living at 4 Bridge Lane.
The Card Index of Land Holdings for 1894 shows John Leatherland with a house and garden in Pinfold Lane, and 6 acres of land at The Railway Approach, whilst William Leatherland owns a house in the High Street [not numbered]
No 2 ~ George Fisher of Thurlby aged 61 years a Cottager living alone, - he died in 1899 aged 82 years and his grave is registered as plot 1036 in the Gravestone Index. His wife and daughter both predeceased him in 1851 and 1871.
No 3 ~ James Moore of Nottingham aged 41 years, an Organist and Music Teacher, his wife Mary aged 33 years and their son Handel, aged 2 years. Also present were Eveline Locke, a step-daughter aged 6 years, and William Locke, a step-son aged 7 years. This family is recorded as living at No 25 in 1891 with James as a widower, Handel an errand boy aged 12 years, and William Locke as a hotel waiter aged 17 years. There is no mention of Eveline, but there is a son Herbert, aged 7 years. They had a 59 year old housekeeper, Frances Deacon to look after them in 1891.
James died in 1914 aged 75 years after 48 years service as organist to the Church. His grave is plot 768 in the GI. He is said to have been partially sighted.
No 4 ~ Francis Brook of Macclesfield aged 54 years, a widower of independent means, living with his son Leonard aged 17 years, an insurance clerk and daughter Rose aged 15 years, who was at school. In 1891 Francis is recorded living at No 4 with his daughter Rose, and Elizabeth Handley, a 14 year old domestic servant.
No 5 ~ The Hallam Family Francis of Bottesford aged 46 years, a railway labourer and cottager, living with his wife Sarah from Nottingham aged 40 years, their sons George and Arthur, aged 16 and 13 years, both farm servants, and four other children Annie, Frank, Herbert and William aged from 8 to 2 years. The 1891 census shows this family living at No 23 High Street. Francis no longer works for the railway, but Annie, now 18 years, is a domestic servant, Frank aged 16 is a farm servant, and William aged 11 is a footman. Three more daughters have been added to the family [Alice and Henrietta both aged 9 years – twins? and Harriet aged 2 years despite the mother now being 50 years old]. Sons George and Arthur were not living at home. Five of the family appear in the photograph below, taken about 30 years later.
It is interesting to note that the Moores and the Hallams appear to live next door but one to each other in 1881 and 1891 – this suggests a different method of house numbering was used in these consecutive censuses.
No 6 ~ Mary Watts of Bottesford aged 77 years, a widow and an annuitant. She lived with her son Robert aged 38 years, an agricultural labourer and grandson John Breffitt, born in Nottingham aged 9 years. This entry was given as No 7 in the census but there were two entries for No 7.
No 7 ~ Samuel Holmes of Bottesford aged 41 years, an agricultural labourer, his wife Mary aged 42 years, his father Thomas aged 73 years [also an agricultural labourer] and his mother June, aged 66 years.
No 8 ~ John Garner birthplace unknown, aged 60 years, a cottager with 12 acres, his sister Anne Cartwright aged 55 years, and her husband Frederick aged 60 years, a hosier’s warehouseman.
In 1891 John is recorded as living at No 21 with two boarders, Alice and Annie Richards aged 29 and 32 years.
No 9 ~ John Wheat of Gosberton aged 69 years, a retired grocer and draper, his wife Emma aged 72 years of Bottesford and their daughter Mary aged 27 years, a teacher. Emma died in 1888 and John in 1899 - they are buried together in plot 544, recorded in the GI.
No 10 ~ No entry for this address
No 11 ~ Robert Vincent of Harlaxton aged 27 years, a farmer with 321 acres employing 4 men and 3 boys. His wife Emily of Bottesford aged 22 years and their daughter Florence, just born, also lived here. They had a kitchen maid, Charlotte Robinson aged 17 years, and a house maid, Sarah Pell aged 15 years living in. Is this family related to Francis Vincent in Acacia House?
The 1891 census records Robert as a corn merchant, living with his wife Emily at No 12 High Street together with Florence, Emsie aged 9 years, Thomas aged 7 years, Eric aged 4 years, Marjorie aged 2 years and Kathrine aged 5 months. There were 2 general servants, Mary Kirton from Muston aged 22 years and Elizabeth Curtis from Huttoft aged 19 years, and a charwoman, Sarah Bailey from Screveton aged 65 years.
Between 1881 and 1891 this increased family may have changed houses with the Wrights next door, but perhaps the numbering system or a clerical mistake may have caused this discrepancy.
No 12 ~ Dr James Wright of East Bridgeford aged 57 years, a GP, his wife Anne from Scarrington aged 48 years, and their sons William aged 24, an architect and surveyor, and Frank aged 17 years, a medical student. Also at this address were Walter Llewellyn from London aged 25 years, assistant to the GP, Anne Abbott from Peterborough, aged 21 years, a cook, and Emma Bagguley from Bennington aged 16, a housemaid.
The 1891 census records James Wright and his wife living at No 11 High Street with Frank their son, who is now a GP. They had one domestic servant Martha Geeson from Knipton, aged 31 years. The change of address may be due to a different numbering system – see above.
No 13 ~ Uninhabited.
No 14 ~ William Brewitt of London aged 73 years, a yeoman [smallholder?], his wife Ann of Deal aged 75 years, their daughter Elisabeth of Shoreditch aged 40 years and grand daughter Emily Jane aged 22 years born in Bottesford.
In 1861 William [then described as a bookbinder] Ann and Elisabeth [then aged 21] were recorded as living in the High Street, but there is no house number given for this census. Emily Jane is not mentioned, and may be the daughter of a child other than Elizabeth. Ann died in 1881 and William in 1888 - they are shown buried together in plot 536 in the GI.
In 1891 Elisabeth Brewitt of London aged 50 years was shown as living at No 1 High Street, on her own means and had Robert Hilson, a railway signalman, his wife Emily, and three young children living at the address as boarders. Elizabeth died aged 78 years in 1918 and is buried near her parents in GI plot 538 .
No 15 ~ William Walker of Bottesford aged 45 years, a surgeon, his wife Mary from Ireland aged 42 years and Susannah Bick of Welby aged 18 years, their servant. In 1891 The Walkers are shown living at No 2 High Street, still next door to Elisabeth Brewitt – this does suggest a different numbering system for these two censuses rather than these two families moving up and down the High Street.
They had 2 domestic servants, and Arthur Goodson of Bottesford, aged 26 years, a solicitor, their stepson, was also in residence.
No 16 ~ Uninhabited
No 17 ~ John Thompson of Bathley aged 33 years, a groom and gardener, his wife Ann of Aslockton aged 36 years and three children Wright, Fred, and Rebecca aged 12, 7, and 3. In 1891 John and Ann are recorded as living at No 5 but John’s birthplace is shown as Muskham and their three children are not mentioned.
No 18 ~ George Rose of Bottesford aged 71 years, a cordwainer [leather-worker] and his wife Elisabeth aged 68 years. Elizabeth died in 1888 and George in 1889. They are shown in the GI as buried together in Plot 163.
No 19 ~ Catherine Straw of Bottesford aged 83 years, an annuitant and a widow.
Ann Cragg of Stoke is also shown living there, an 80 year old annuitant and widow, but head of a separate household.
No 20 ~ James Turtle of Marnham aged 26 years, an agricultural labourer, his wife Sarah from Bottesford aged 26 years, and their son John aged 1 year.
No 21 ~ Daniel Gilding of Bottesford aged 29 years, a bricklayers labourer, his wife Mary aged 26 years, their daughter Kate aged 3 years and son Tom aged 1 year. In 1891 Daniel is recorded as living at No 9, with children William 9, Mary 6, John 4, and Frank 1 year but Kate and Tom are not recorded.
No 22 ~ Thomas Blackburn of Hougham aged 45 years, a carrier [carter?] his wife Elisabeth of Carlton Scroop aged 44 years, their son David aged 7 years and daughter Hannah aged 4 years.
In 1891 Thomas and Elisabeth are recorded as living at No 10 High Street, their name is spelt slightly differently, Thomas has become a coal merchant, David is no longer at home, but Hannah aged 14 is at school.
The Card Index of Land Holding for 1894 shows Thomas Blackbourne as the tenant of a house and croft in the High Street [no number] – the property belonged to Ann Lovitt.
No 23 ~ Ann Mills of Bottesford aged 66 years a bricklayers widow, with son Thomas aged 26 years, a joiner and his wife Mary from Granby aged 24 years. In 1891 Ann is recorded as living at No 14 [Miller ?] “ on her own means”, with her son in law Henry Challands aged 32 years, a bricklayer, and her daughter Alice Challands aged 32 years, a dressmaker.
No 24 ~ Sarah White of Bottesford aged 83 years, an annuitant and widow, and her general servant Harriet Miller aged 19 years. Sarah is recorded in the GI as deceased in 1884 and buried in plot 92.
No 25 ~ Williams Mills of Bottesford aged 38 years, a bricklayer, his wife Annie aged 37 years, their son Arthur aged 12 and daughter Alice A Mills aged 7 years. In 1891 William and Annie are recorded as living at No 16 High Street, and Alice has become a dressmaker [perhaps working with Alice Challands, born Mills, at no 23]. Bricklaying and dressmaking seem to be the sources of income of the extended Mills family.
No 26 ~ Henry Branston of Bottesford aged 50 years, an agricultural labourer, his wife Fanny from Bottesford aged 53 years and their son William aged 23, a railway platelayer.
No 27 ~ John Parnham of Whatton aged 59 years, a cattle dealer, his wife Ellen of Haceby aged 64 years, son Joseph aged 31 years [occupation unknown], and son John aged 26 years a professional cricketer. Their daughter Sarah aged 22 years and Lucy Page of Bottesford aged 4, their granddaughter, also lived there. In 1891 John and Ellen were recorded as living at No 17 High Street, but John is described as a cottager and his son Joseph as a cottager’s son. In 1871 a family of Parnhams all of Bottesford are shown living in the High Street, but no number is given for the house. The father, Richard, aged 34, an agricultural labourer, and his wife, Mary, aged 35, had 5 children, William aged 9, George aged 7, Eliza aged 4, Frederic aged 2 and Rebecca aged 6 months - but by 1881 this family had moved on to live at 25 Normanton Road.
No 28 ~ John Lamb of Bottesford aged 84 years, a gardener
No 29 ~ William Reynolds of Barrowby aged 60 years, a joiner, his wife Jane from Bottesford aged 55, with their son Thomas aged 22, an agricultural labourer, Willie aged 19, and Israel aged 16, both general labourers and daughters Jane aged 15 and Charlotte aged 10, a farm servant. Also in residence was Rhoda Reynolds, a 2 year old granddaughter from Nottingham. In 1891 William and daughter Charlotte are recorded as living at No 29 under the name Reylands.
No 30 ~ Susan Richards of Kingscliffe, Northants, aged 48 a nurse and four daughters, Anne aged 23 a nurse, Alice aged 20 a dressmaker, Mary aged 18 and Rose of Newark, just born. In 1891 Alice and Annie are recorded as living at No 21 as boarders with John Garner. A check in the GI at plot 736 shows Joseph Richards who died aged 33 years in 1864 buried with his wife Susannah, who died in 1886 aged 49 years – this may not be same person as Susan Richards owing to a discrepancy in the age at death but the accuracy of the age given in the census may itself be in error.
No 31 ~ Uninhabited
No 32 ~ Edward White of Worksop aged 45 years, a druggist and grocer, his wife Emma of Sudbrook aged 39, and five children – John aged 5, Louisa aged 4, Constance aged 3, Lancelot aged 1 and Octavius, just born. Mary Gibson of Bottesford, aged 16, lived in as a general servant. In 1891 the Whites are recorded as living at No 43, but son John is not mentioned, and they have no servant.
No 33 ~ Charity Kettleborrow of Wiston, Yorkshire, aged 49 years, a farmer with 100 acres employing two labourers and a boy. In residence were her daughters, Sarah, born in Barton le Willows, aged 18, and Ada, born in Thornton le Clay, aged 16.
At the same address were Samuel Taylor of Horbling, aged 57 years, a farm bailiff, William Lilley of Woolsthorpe, aged 27, a farm servant, Frances Robinson, aged 21, a general servant, and Daniel Robinson, aged 13 years, a farm servant, both of Bottesford.
In 1891 Charity is recorded as living at No 42 with her son Richard of Thornton le Clay aged 23 years, farmer, and one domestic servant. The Card Index for Land Holdings for 1894 shows Richard as owning 117 acres of land at Barkestone Lane, a house on the High Street [no number] and another on The Green, rented to William Billingslane.
No 34 ~ Robert Hudson of Boston aged 63 years, a tailor, his wife Catherine, of Branston aged 53, and Annie Caunt of Branston aged 13 years [a step-daughter ?]. Their lodgers are Catherine Smith, aged 48 and James Smith, aged 42, a machine fitter both of Cambridge.
No 35 ~ Robert Lamb of Woolsthorpe, aged 37 years, a bricklayer, his wife, Ann, from Corby, aged 35, and daughter, Sarah, born in Woolsthorpe, aged 10. Sarah’s age implies that this family have moved to Bottesford in the last 10 years. In 1891 Robert and his daughter Sarah are recorded as living at No 40 but Ann is not mentioned.
No 36 ~ Francis Bust of Bottesford, aged 54 years, and his sons John, aged 23, Thomas, aged 17 – all agricultural labourers.
No 37 ~ William Kirk of Bottesford, aged 37 years, a railway labourer, his wife Sarah, aged 34, son Henry, aged 7, and daughters, Alice aged 11, Ellen, aged 5, and Grace, aged 2 years.
No 38 ~ John Chattell of Leighton, Huntingdon, aged 33 years, a railway porter, his wife, Elisabeth, also of Leighton, aged 30, and sons, Arthur, aged 9, born in Northampton, and Charles, aged 3, born in Normanton Yorkshire, and daughters, Elisabeth, aged 12, born in Leighton, Mary, 11 and Martha 7, born in Northampton, Lizzie, aged 5, born in Normanton, Yorkshire, and Alice, not yet 1 year, born in Bottesford. The family appears to move about as required by the railway.
No 39 ~ John Hide of Burgh, Lincs, aged 24, a railway signalman, his wife Sarah, of Coton in Derbyshire, aged 25, their son John, aged 1 year, born in Coton. Also living with the family, Ann Brown, of Coton, aged 9 years, a sister to Sarah.
No 40 ~ Robert Tinkler of Woolsthorpe, aged 28 years, an engine driver, his wife Eliza, of Muston, aged 25, and sons John, aged 4 and Samuel, aged 1. Robert’s brother, Samue,l aged 24, an agricultural labourer, also lived with this family.
No 41 – Francis Miller of Bottesford, aged 54 years, a plumber and glazier and his wife Ann, aged 54. In 1891 Francis and Ann are recorded living at No 13 with their 31 year-old dressmaker daughter, Elizabeth, born in Bottesford.
No 42 ~ James North of Muston, aged 32 years, an agricultural labourer, his wife Sarah from Elston, aged 32 and four sons, William, aged 6, Fred, 3, George, 2, and Thomas, not yet one year old.
No 43 ~ Samuel Edwards of Holdingham Lincs, aged 65 years, a tile maker and burner, with his daughter and housekeeper, Millicent Edwards of Welingore Lincs, aged 23 years, and William Edwards, his grandson, aged 14 years, also of Welingore, a farm labourer. Samuels’ wife, Ann, had died in 1880 and William died in 1890.They are recorded in the GI as buried together in plot 612.
No 44 ~ Ellen Robinson of Redmile, aged 52 years, a charwoman and her lodger, James Knowles, of Bottesford, aged 49, a railway labourer.
No 45 ~ John Winn of Bottesford, aged 56 years, a bricklayer, his wife Ann aged 55, and their sons Robert aged 20 an agricultural labourer, and Barker, aged 13, a farmer’s boy. In 1891 John and Ann are recorded as living at No 30 but only son Robert is living with them.
No 46 ~ William Sutton of Bottesford, aged 47 years, a grocer, (shown right in later life) and his wife, Eliza, of Woolsthorpe aged 36, with their nephew Philip aged 14, and Robert Rawdin aged 7, a visitor, both from Bottesford and at school. In 1891 William and Eliza are recorded as living at No 29 High Street, with their children, John aged 6, Philip aged 4, June aged 3, and Ann aged 1 year. Their nephew, Philip Sutton, still lives with them – he is 24 years old, unmarried and a butcher’s assistant.
We know William Sutton, shown above c. 1910, lived in the house at the Eastern end of Jackson’s/Butcher’s Row, so it seems probable that the preceding households were those in Jackson’s Row.
No 47 ~ Francis Shaw of Burton on the Wolds aged 62 years, a shoemaker. He is a widower. In 1891 Francis is recorded as living at No 28.
No 48 ~ Hannah Pickering of Bottesford, aged 64 years, a spinster, described as “post mistress, ironmonger and glazier”. Her brother Thomas, aged 59, an ironmonger and letter carrier, also lived at No 48. Sister Rebecca Lamb of Bottesford, aged 62 and her husband Josiah, aged 63, a retired farmer are part of this household, together with Mary Emerson of Grantham, aged 19, a servant. A friend, Mary Nixon of Barnsley, aged 51, acts as an assistant housekeeper. By 1891 Josiah, Rebecca and Thomas are recorded as living at “No 2 near The Rutland Arms”. Hannah died in 1885 and Thomas in 1893. They are recorded in the GI as buried with their parents in plots 116 and 117.
In 1891 “at No 3 near The Rutland Arms” [the Post Office] Ebenezer Parks of Knipton aged 31 years is post master and ironmonger. He lives with his wife Amelia of Croxton, aged 34, and three children, Amelia 3, Frank 2, and Leonard 1 year. Mary Goodacre and Harriet Goodacre, the widowed mother-in-law and sister-in–law, are also in residence at the post office.
No 49 ~ George Sherwin of Bottesford, aged 47 years, an innkeeper [is this the building that is now known as The Rutland Arms?], his wife Fanny of Sheen, Staffs, aged 48, their son Edwin, aged 21, a baker, and daughter Lucy, aged 11 years.
Also on the premises were two lodgers – Thomas Case of Gainsborough, aged 35, a horse man, and Charles Yeoland, of Helmswell aged 23, a horse dealer. Lucy Watson of Welby, aged 16, was a general servant.
In 1891 The Rutland Arms is shown separately in the census. George, Fanny and Lucy are still in residence but Edwin has left home. This family has been joined by a son, George, aged 29 years, an ironmonger, and daughter Fanny, aged 26, a barmaid, and grand-daughter Gertrude Sherwin, aged 6 years.
George died in 1902 and Fanny in 1914. They are recorded in the GI as buried side by side in plots 407 and 408.
No 50 ~ William Parr of Roxholme, Lincs, aged 32 years, a railway signalman, his wife Elenor aged 30, of Redmile, their son John aged 3, and daughter Frances aged 5, both born at Lincoln, and daughter Florence, not yet one year old.
No 51 ~ Ann Jarvis of Bottesford, aged 65 years, a school mistress.
As a separate household at No 51 was Joseph Martin of Bottesford, aged 40 years, a baker and confectioner, his wife Elisabeth from Derbyshire, aged 39 , their sons, William, aged 15, Alfred, aged 13, and daughter Mary, aged 11 - all three children were born in Nottinghamshire.
No 52 ~ Uninhabited
[No 53 – no mention of this address in the census]
No 54 ~ Thomas Page of Barkestone, aged 45 years, a farmer [with 53 acres employing 3 labourers and 3 boys ], and his daughter Sarah of Ingoldsby, aged 21, as housekeeper.
No 55 ~ Uninhabited
Acacia House ~ still standing today at the eastern end of the High Street, was given individual treatment in the census of 1881. The residents were Francis Vincent of Bottesford, aged 72 years, a retired farmer, his wife Caroline from Nottinghamshire, aged 61, and Mary Featherstone of Sproxton, aged 24, a dairy maid and Eliza Leake of Ancaster, aged 24, a housemaid. Perhaps a younger part of the Vincent family were living at No 11 High Street.
In 1891 this property is known as Vincent’s House and Francis and Caroline are still there with daughter Rebecca of Scarrington, aged 27 years, plus two visitors and two servants.
The Easthorpe part of the census shows 6 further properties in the High Street, numbered 1-6, which we will refer to as the ‘East end residents’. There were also two shops at The Cross.
In 1891 these shops were recorded as 14 and 15 Market Street, and the six High Street properties are recorded as numbers 1 to 5 and 7 Grantham Road, but not in the Easthorpe section of the census. The property recorded in 1891 as No 6 The High Street is the Red Lion, [landlord Francis James] which was recorded in 1881 as No 8 Church Street - perhaps at this time the main entrance to this establishment was in Church Street - this building can just be identified on the edge of the map on page 1. There was a smithy in what is now the car park, and a pump in the back garden.
No 1 The Cross ~ John Fryer of Langford Notts, aged 42 years, a butcher, his wife Margaret of Sturton, Lincs, aged 50, their children Elmer and Annie, aged 8 and 6 years, born in Bottesford and Kate Watson of Sturton, aged 26, a niece. By 1891 Elmer had left home, and Annie was at school.
The address is given as 14 Market Street.
No 2 The Cross ~ John Sutton of Bottesford aged 57 years, a grocer and cottager, his wife Sarah of Cropwell, aged 54, their daughter Mary, aged 17, and son, John, aged 12, both of Bottesford. There was no change in 1891 except that John and Mary are recorded as grocers assistants, and the address has changed to 15 Market Street
No 1 High Street ~ James Lewty of Nottinghamshire, known as “Ticky” Lewty, aged 58 years, a watchmaker, his wife Frances of Redmile, aged 56, and their daughter Elvira of Bottesford, aged 17 years, a dressmaker.
In 1891 only James and his daughter named Elen, aged 27, are in residence, and the address is No 1 Grantham Road.
No 2 High Street ~ James Geeson of Redmile, aged 31 years, an agricultural labourer, his wife Eliza of Muston, aged 30, with Sarah Birch of Leeds, aged 49, a visitor, and Sarah Challands, aged 18 of Muston, a cousin and a dressmaker. By 1891 James aged 8, and Agnes aged 4 years, had been born, and Sarah Birch and Sarah Challands had moved on. They are replaced in the household by Sarah Stevenson, a widowed sister from Redmile, aged 55, and 3 boarders, George Geeson of Bottesford aged 51, Arthur Hotchin of Grantham aged 21 [a grocers assistant], and surprisingly Gertrude Whitehead of Bottesford aged 3 years.
No 3 High Street ~ Charles Birch of Muston, aged 55 years, a chimney sweep, his son Edward, aged 23, an invalided soldier, and daughters Eliza, Alice, and Harriet aged 17, 7 and 6 years, and son in law, John Knowles of Easthorpe, aged 23 years, a railway labourer. In 1891 Charles is in residence but now with his wife Sarah, aged 62 and Ann Norris of Bottesford, aged 91 years, a lodger.
No 4 High Street ~ Thomas Dent of Bottesford aged 22 years, a railway platelayer, his wife Susannah from Muskham, Lincs, aged 21, their daughter Mary, not yet one, and a boarder, Alfred Lee of Bottesford aged 42, a tailor. In 1891 the boarder has been replaced by three daughters, Sarah, aged 7, Ellen 5, and Maria 3, but there is no mention of Mary who would have been 11 years old.
No 5 High Street ~ Daniel Daybell of Bottesford, aged 40 years, a farmer with 160 acres employing 2 labourers and 2 boys, his wife Elisabeth of Grantham, aged 38, and their children, all born in Bottesford, Daniel aged 12, Mary aged 9, Annie aged 7, Herbert aged 5, and Minnie, 2 years. Phillip Gaitskell, aged 15, a visitor from London and a scholar was in residence, as was Sarah Palmer of Navenby, aged 18, a domestic servant. In 1891 there is no mention of daughter Mary, but another daughter Eveline, has been born in 1887, and a niece, Dorothy Draper, aged 6, from Manchester has joined the family. Phillip and Sarah have moved on and a male servant, William Linsey, aged 22 from Alnwick, Lincs is in residence.
No 6 High Street ~ William Marston of Cundale, Yorks aged 30 years, a school master, his wife Eliza of Ripon, aged 28, their sons George and Charles, aged 6 and 4 years, both born in Bottesford and daughter Minnie, aged 7, born in Hale, Lincs. Ann Walker of Kirkby, Yorks, aged 65, the mother in law, acted as housekeeper. This may well have been the School House now a private residence on Grantham Road.
In 1891 the family was recorded as living at No 7 Grantham Road, the only changes being the birth of a daughter Gertrude, aged 9 and a son William, aged 5 years. Wife Eliza is described as a schoolmistress at this time.
In 1881 the oldest inhabitant in the village was William Clifton aged 89 years, an annuitant living in the Rutland Hospital. There were only 93 inhabitants aged 70 years or more out of a total recorded population of 1,640 living in Bottesford, Easthorpe, Muston, and Normanton - 6%.
1. Uninhabited Properties Out of a total of 63 addresses in the High Street six were shown as uninhabited. The Census of 1891 records no uninhabited properties.
2. Women In the Census wives appear not to be employed and it is assumed that they acted as housekeepers to the family. It might be that the census did not collect this information, as the space for occupation of the wife is always blank whilst the occupation of sisters, daughters, and mothers in law is shown e.g. dressmaker or housekeeper.
The size of families appears larger than is the norm today – some had 4, 5 or 6 children [7 at No 38] and at the date of the census these families may not have been complete. Some wives continued bearing children late into life, e.g. Sarah Hallam at No 45 at the age of 48 years and Emma Wheat at No 9 had her daughter when she was 45 years old.
Many wives were older than their husbands. Out of 40 married couples in the High Street, 9 wives were older than their husbands.
There are several examples of elderly ladies living alone, together, or with a servant and described as “an annuitant”.
Many young women found “living in” employment as domestic servants. Three families in the High Street, a Doctor and two Farmers employed two servants each and seven other addresses had one servant each – a total of 13 domestic servants in 55 properties.
3. How did people earn a living? There was a wide range of occupations amongst the residents of the High Street. 28 men were in agriculture as farmers, labourers, or cottagers; 9 worked for the railway, and 7 more were in the building trade. Six young children between the ages of 12 and 14 years are shown as in employment e.g. farm or domestic servant
There is no certainty from the census that a shop existed at any address but the occupations given suggest the following as shop keepers.
No 1 Fancy Repository [ what does this mean ?]
No 32 Druggist and Grocer
No 34 Tailor – this might have been a workroom rather than a shop
No 46 Grocer - there was considerable competition in the grocery trade with small shops at The Cross and in Church Street, Market Street, Chapel Street, and Queen Street.
No 47 Shoemaker - with competition from a boot maker on The Green, and a shoemaker in Queen Street. There were also 2 cordwainers or leather workers in the village, and a saddler in Queen Street.
No 48 The Post Office - combined with an ironmonger and glazier.
No49 Inn Keeper - this could be what is now The Rutland Arms
No 51 Baker and Confectioner - the son of the inn keeper at No 49 was a baker and may have worked here. There was another baker in Queen Street. It should be noted that in 1881 many housewives would knead their own dough and take it to a neighbours house which had a bread oven, for baking when the oven was in use.
Among the ‘east end residents’ No 1 – a watchmaker, would probably have had his workroom at his residence.
There were two shops at The Cross – No 1 a butcher and No 2 a grocer.
At numbers 23 and 25 High Street the ladies of the Mills family seemed to have a thriving dress making business, whilst at the east end the 17 year old girls in numbers 1and 2 may have worked together.
Dr James Wright lived at number 12 with Walter Llewellyn as his assistant, this would seem to be one of the two medical practices in the village. By 1891 his son [Frank] appears to have followed him into the practice
The census shows a wide range of occupations amongst the residents of the High Street including:
Insurance Clerk Architect & Surveyor School Mistress
Carter Tailor Plumber & Glazier
Tile Maker & Burner Shoemaker Organist & Music Teacher
Hosier’s Warehouseman Surgeon Groom & Gardener
Charwoman Professional Cricketer Chimney Sweep
At No 49, the inn, there were 2 lodgers whose occupations were “horseman” and “horsedealer”.
4. Annuitants Retired persons living on their savings and possibly a pension were often described in the census as annuitants. There were five such persons in the High Street in 1881. There was an invalided soldier aged 23, perhaps on a pension at No 3 at the east end.
5. Families living together in one house Although there were 4 elderly people living alone , there were also examples of a brother or sister living within the family of their relations. Sometimes a husband and wife would look after elderly parents e.g. No 7. Some families seemed to give shelter to a step daughter or nephew, or a grandchild e.g. Nos 6,29,39,43,and 46.
At No 48 the post mistress was head of the household but her brother acted as “letter deliverer” and her sister and brother in law also lived in and perhaps helped with the ironmongery business.
6. Movement of the residents in the High Street Analysis of the birth place of the heads of each household shows that a considerable number of residents were local to Bottesford. In nine families both husband and wife were born in Bottesford and in ten others the husband or wife from Bottesford had brought in a partner from a neighbouring village. There were nine single people from Bottesford living in the High Street. However, six Bottesford men had chosen to marry partners who lived some distance from the village [one from Dublin] but only one Bottesford wife had a husband born some distance away.
There is also evidence of people migrating to live in Bottesford e.g. fifteen couples had moved into Bottesford from farther away than the local villages and seven single people came from outside the area. These last two groups contained residents who were traders, or railway workers.